At the beginning of April an interesting lecture gave researchers from both countries the opportunity of exploring the events of the two nations
The conference in Rome Via Omero on 7 and 8 April 2011, sponsored by the Academy of Denmark (which is located in this scenic part of the capital, close to Villa Borghese) with the help of the Royal Embassy of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen, has allowed scholars from different disciplines to compare Italy and Denmark, two countries with a significant role in the creation and growth of the European Union. The initiative, titled “Italy Europe – Italy and Denmark” and conceived during the sesquicentennial of the Unification of Italy, was opened by an impassioned speech by the President of the Italian Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, who stressed that the difficulties and uncertainties that have marked the location of the birth and development of United Europe have not held steady progress in this direction not only of a Alphagreater economic integration and infrastructure, but also political and social.
The Director of the Academy of Denmark, Erik Bach, has welcomed all the guests coming from different cultural institutes, universities and organizations: On Thursday, April 7, throughout the day, was attended by Francesco Barbagallo (Naples University “Federico II “), on “Nation, State, Constitution from the United Italy to the Republic”; Francis Alfa ( Italian Encyclopedia Institute) on “Italian historicism , Italian identity in a European context”, Kristina Junge Jorgensen (‘La Sapienza’University ) on Frederick IV of Denmark’s journey to Italy, Bent Holm (University of Copenhagen), the identity comedy “the Importance of Italianity ‘ ‘danesizzazione’ Goldoni and Holberg for the creation of the Danish National Theatre, Anna Maria Segala (‘ Sapienza’ University) on “the Odin Teatre between Italy and Denmark” in discussions moderated by Gert Sorensen, of the ‘University of Copenhagen’, Paul Borioni ( the Centre for Nordic Studies in Helsinki ) and Kristina Junge Jorgensen.
On Friday, April 8 discussions were held on the translation , the imagination and the historical and political realities, with the assistance of Hanne Jansen (of ‘University of Copenhagen), on “Italy in Denmark “ according to ” Anna Wegener’s (University of Copenhagen ) translations , ” writer Karin Michaelis’s books read by adults and children in Fascist Italy” by Bruno Berni (Italian Institute of Germanic Studies) on “Danish Literature in Italian. A landscape”; Stender Jorgen Clausen (University of Pisa) on “Brandes and Garibaldi,” Mads Mills (“Information” Copenhagen) on the “image of contemporary Italy in the press” and Paul Borioni (Center for Nordic Studies, University of Helsinki) “elitist and populist moralism , distortions. for a true historical and scientific. comparison.
Francesco Barbagallo has retraced the steps that led Italy in the second half of the nineteenth century to be outstanding for the presence of centralized institutions, Jacobin and Napoleonic derived in terms of organization of the state, a setting which had contributed to setting the Hegelian no intellectuals. “In developing the manufacturing and availability of energy resources in Italy remained far behind the national states of the oldest units – said Barbagallo – imbalances between north and south of the country were read and discussed by the leaders of North and also by intellectuals passed from the south to the north as a clash of civilizations, to be regulated through the state of siege. “The model of the Italian state, underestimating the civil society, was placed midway between the German state of ethics, the effort to identify the masses in the institutions and the British liberalism with his model for the protection of liberty and property. “The rights of citizens are not designed in a model like the Italian, as limits to the action of the state, but concessions of the state – said the professor ( University of Naples )- Italy will be the first parties in the socialist, republican , popular, which will force the company in the state. ”
Barbagallo has reflected on how the logical consequence of social unrest, namely the restructuring of a new liberal system in which the addresses were dictated by political party democracy, is shipwrecked together with the liberal attempt to organize themselves in a state of parties, “the state-centric model will resurface in the form of the fascist state, which plans to forced integration of new companies in the state – has concluded the scholar – the forces that had fought for the Resistance and the Republic will lead to the Italian constitution, with a strong innovation with respect to the liberal statutes l of the Kingdom of Italy. The mass parties were beginning to understand the need to involve the economy to politics. AlphaAlfa Francis recalled how until the seventies of the twentieth century all parties spoke of Italy as a nation, but in recent years has revealed a difficulty in speaking of the country as a unitary subject. “The study of history, Italian politics since World War II, was the meeting point of major – Alfa has noticed – from the early forties of the nineteenth century it appeared that the problem was to construct a uniform policy in a country marked by fragmentation problems. “the scholar pointed out how much of the historical generation of the right was made up of intellectuals who were also men been in dialogue with Europe. “With the mass society, where there are other issues such as labour and democracy beyond the national independence, the
political class is no longer shared referents, the culture also directs you toward solutions antiparliamentarian – Alfa said – the first since the mass society was in fact built by fascism led to reflect on a lack of cultural reform in Italy. Gramsci reads both aspects of fascism, to truly mass social movement and the conservative instrument of class struggle. In Cross lacks awareness of the transition to mass society. In Gramsci, fascism and in this awareness does exist, but sometimes lacking in the Socialist Party. “The scholar also stressed how Pietro Scoppola and Aldo Moro have changed the Catholic culture, integrating it into the constitutional design with the favour of the Italian Communist Party , neither revolutionary nor Social Democratic, but mass national and constitutional party . The constitutional framework was in fact a shared environment, and this explains the influence of even smaller parties like the Action. Party.
Gert Sorensen spoke from a Danish perspective the whole of “The Grand Tour in Italy, and return”, introducing the speech with a quote from Benedetto Croce, observation stating that every story must include an element of autobiography, something that emerges in all the descriptions of travelers in northern Italy, which are often full of myths of the boot as a country of art, museums and ancient traditions. “A colorful place to be an underclass picturesque – Sorensen said – an imagination that was already passed in eighteen hundred, though in part still likely at the time of writers such as Andersen and paintings by Constantin Hansen. The common life of Danish artists led them to a nostalgic insulation, helping to create self-sustaining mythologies. “Italy is painted with a more congenial to the characteristics of an intellectual world. “Wilhelm Marstrand, Ditlev Blunch, painters of nature, wild and unspoiled hour animated by scenes carnival, offering a world of images crystallized after the failure of revolutionary upheavals – said the professor, University of Copenhagen – there is also another version Tour in Italy, a relationship between a more depth of the Italian problems in Italy and moving to Masonic activities. The progressive era programs were already speaking of the European Union. ”
Bent Holm began his speech by the fact that today every Danish brings people of Tivoli amusement park in Copenhagen, pantomimes that actually date back to the seventeen hundred Danish and the relationships between the characters of the Commedia dell’Arte Italian theater and the nascent bourgeois Denmark. “The texts are made available to local audiences, the characters are’ danesizzati ‘ – said the professor, University of Copenhagen – The National Theatre is adapted foreign, national estranged with the adoption of models from abroad, hence the mixture of Danish and Italian names in a unique theatrical world artificial Italo-Franco-Danish represented in the Convention, Denmark. “So on the one hand, indigenous phenomenon, the other an imitation of models” novels “. In fact, the company was directed by Peter Mingotti Copenhagen.
Anna Maria Rye cited a well-known example of integration between Italy and Denmark: The Olin Teatre famous Danish theater group created by Eugenio Barba, the focus of his studies. “In 1972, a show inspired by Dostoevsky puts the group in contact with youth groups that were extraneous to the theatre, both traditional as it was then working – said the professor of the University ‘La Sapienza ‘ – flourished in those years in Denmark free theater groups not organic to the decentralization policy. The Olin Teatre today behind almost fifty years of business and is away from the places and methods of social theater. “They meet in the eastern theater experience, tradition and avant-garde elements of local culture.
Foto © Aldo Ciummo